Converting .NET 6 Minimal API back to Startup.cs

I’ve had to convert a Minimal API app back to Startup.cs a few times now. Here are some reasons why you might want to do it:

Incompatible NuGet packages

For example as of time of writing Amazon.Lambda.AspNetCoreServer doesn’t work with Minimal APIs. If you didn’t know that Amazon.Lambda.AspNetCoreServer.Hosting was what you needed for Minimal APIs, you’d be stuck without converting to Startup.cs.

Needing to return to .NET 5

Again, as of time of writing, AWS Elastic Beanstalk does not support .NET 6 on runtime based deployments. So if you have built half your app in Minimal API style you’ll need to change it to Startup.cs to use .NET 5.

It different to everything else in your org

Minimal APIs introduce new training overhead for teams used to Startup.cs. Remember, some people are only just getting their heads around Startup.cs which was a big (and brilliant) change from Global.asax.

It doesn’t match documentation

Most documentation out there still has instructions for Startup.cs. Figuring out how to apply the instructions in a Minimal API Program.cs can be a headache.

If you want to convert to a Startup class, here are the empty Program.cs and Startup.cs classes that will be useful

Program.cs:

using Microsoft.AspNetCore;
using Microsoft.AspNetCore.Hosting;

public class Program
{
    public static void Main(string[] args)
    {
        var host = CreateWebHostBuilder(args).Build();
        host.Run();
    }

    public static IWebHostBuilder CreateWebHostBuilder(string[] args) =>
    WebHost.CreateDefaultBuilder(args).UseStartup<Startup>();
}

and Startup.cs:

using Microsoft.AspNetCore.Builder;
using Microsoft.AspNetCore.Hosting;
using Microsoft.Extensions.Configuration;
using Microsoft.Extensions.DependencyInjection;

public class Startup
{
    public Startup(IConfiguration configuration)
    {
        Configuration = configuration;
    }

    public IConfiguration Configuration { get; }

    public void ConfigureServices(IServiceCollection services)
    {

    }

    public void Configure(IApplicationBuilder app, IWebHostEnvironment env)
    {

    }
}

Here is a video walking through how to do it:

Watch this video on YouTube.

Adding Razor cshtml view runtime re-compilation to a ASP.NET Core 5.0 app after creating it

I recently came across an interesting issue where after starting a new ASP.NET Core 5.0 .NET 5 project using the “ASP.NET Core Web App (Model-View-Controller)” template did not include the ability to update .cshtml Razor files without recompiling and restarting the whole app. There is a checkbox to “Enable Razor Runtime Compilation” during project setup but it’s easy to miss and tricky to add afterwards if you don’t know what you are looking for.

First, you need to head to the Nuget Package explorer by right clicking on the Dependencies node of your project tree selecting “Manage NuGet packages…”. Search for and install Microsoft.AspNetCore.Mvc.Razor.RuntimeCompilation. Install it and it’s dependencies into your project.

Then head to Startup.cs. Find the line within ConfigureServices() that says “services.AddControllersWithViews()” and add “.AddRazorRuntimeCompilation()”. You won’t be able to add this line without first installing the previous NuGet package.

Now run your app. You will see that changing the contents of Razor .cshtml files and refreshing the page will cause the view to be updated with your new content, without having to stop and recompile.

YouTube demonstration video

Razor Runtime Compilation - Reload Razor view in .NET Core 5.0 without recompiling
Watch this video on YouTube.

Handling and intercepting Back button Navigation in Xamarin Forms Shell

I’ve recently ended up needing to ask if the user really wants to navigate away from a page in my Xamarin app, Net Writer. Essentially whilst a post is being edited I don’t want the user to accidentally lose their progress, necessitating the need to inject a “Are you sure?” or “Confirm exit” prompt when the user presses either the Android hardware or OS level back button or the back button on the navigation bar provided by the Xamarin Forms Shell.

I found a blog post by Bohdan Benetskyi from March 2020, but it was geared for MvvmCross and not Xamarin Forms Shell. Here is how to adapt it.

Introducing IBackButtonHandler to your Page

If you have existing pages you can add an interface to them and implement it, for example here is a page from my app with IBackButtonHandler added to the class:

  [XamlCompilation(XamlCompilationOptions.Compile)]
    public partial class PostListSummaryPage : ReactiveContentPage<PostSummaryListPageViewModel>, IBackButtonHandler
    {

This can then be implemented however you like, returning true if the back navigation should be aborted, for example:

public async Task<bool> HandleBackButton()
{
    if (await ShouldNotGoBack())
    {
        return true;
    }

    return false;
}

public async Task<bool> ShouldNotGoBack()
{
    var response = await this.DisplayActionSheet("Would you like to discard any unsaved changes to this post?", "No", "Yes, go back");

    return response == "No";
}

Once that is done next up is wiring up the back buttons.

Handling the Android OS back button

To handle the OS level back button you’ll need to add the following to MainActivity.cs:

public async override void OnBackPressed()
{
    var backButtonHandler = Shell.Current.CurrentPage as IBackButtonHandler;

    if (backButtonHandler == null)
    {
        base.OnBackPressed();
        return;
    }

    var backButtonHandled = await backButtonHandler.HandleBackButton();
    if (!backButtonHandled)
    {
        base.OnBackPressed();
    }
}

Lets step through this. First up, it attempts to cast the current Shell page as IBackButtonHandler. This means that only Pages that implement this interface will have any change of behaviour here. If the interface is not implemented, the base implementation of OnBackPressed() is called. If it is implemented, the HandleBackButton method is evaluated. If it returns true, the back navigation is cancelled. If false, the base implementation of OnBackPressed() is called, continuing the back navigation.

Handling the Shell back button

This is the button on the top left that shows when you are more than one level deep in the navigation stack. Handling this is less clean as it requires adding a call to Shell.SetBackButtonBehaviour in the constructor of each page that requires this. For example, add the following to the constructor of your page, after InitializeComponent():

Shell.SetBackButtonBehavior(this, new BackButtonBehavior()
{
    Command = new Command(async () => {

        var backButtonHandled = await this.HandleBackButton();
        if (!backButtonHandled)
        {
            await Navigation.PopAsync();
        }

    })
});

After that, you’l get a nice prompt pop up whenever you hit the OS back button or the shell navigation back button, but only on pages that implement IBackButtonHandler.

Walkthough video

If you would like a video walkthough of the above, check out this video:

How to confirm Xamarin Forms Shell Navigation Back Button
Watch this video on YouTube.